1. Lean design – Learning from Apple

    February 26, 2014 by ahmed

    Lean is optimising a process to preserve value with less work. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS).
    Lean aims to eliminate waste in the entire value stream, by creating processes that need less human effort, less space, and less time to make products and services at lower cost, therefore Lean simply means creating more value for customers with fewer resources.

    However, how does this relate to Steve Jobs and iPod in particular or all Apple’s iDevices in general?

    Steve Jobs used Lean in another way, instead of thinking of lean as a way of minimising waste in the production process he looked at how to eliminate waste in the way the customer interacts with the iPod.
    For example, the volume up button could have different functions such as selecting a menu choice or taking a photo. This approach enabled Apple to produce mobile phones with just five buttons.

    Apple’s (or perhaps Steve Jobs) innovation is by focusing on customers and how to offer them products without the un-necessary extras from design stage until displayed in an outlet.


    I have an instinctive aversion to hero worship. There is a fine line between valuing the lessons demonstrated by great leaders and slipping into a blind devotion that masks the inevitable flaws to be found in every human personality. Steve Jobs had more than his share of flaws and he possessed more than his share of genius. Reading Walter Isaacson’s recent and excellent biography of Jobs I am struck by the intuitive sense of lean, of flow, of simplicity, that he demanded from both the aesthetics and the technical workings of every product. You would be hard pressed to find an executive with a better sense of the interaction between the social and the technical.

    The Lean Mind

    When we think of lean our mind first goes to the workings of the Toyota factory. However, the principles of eliminating waste and achieving interruption free flow may be found at an even more profound level in the design of Apple’s breakthrough products and the intuition of Steve Jobs. Only nine percent of Americans today work in manufacturing and we might do well to turn our attention to the application of lean principles to less obvious endeavors such as product design and the use of technology.

    From the design of the first Mac to the design of the iPad, Steve obsessed on their design. He understood what we wanted before we wanted it and that was his genius. We didn’t know we wanted GUI’s, an iPod or iPad, and even less did we think we would be attracted to a product by the elegance and simplicity of its packaging. He imagined the customer experience before we had experienced it. This is intuition, a zen appreciation for the movement of the hand and eye and the imperative to eliminate distractions to allow the mind of the user to flow from the first thought to the engagement in the utility of the device.

    On the design of the iPad:

    “As usual Jobs pushed for the purest simplicity. That required determining what was the core essence of the device. The answer: the display screen. So the guiding principle was that everything they did had to defer to the screen. ‘How do we get out of the way so there aren’t a ton of features and buttons that distract from the display?’ Ive (head of design) asked. At every step Jobs pushed to remove and simplify.” (page 514)

    With the story of the development of each product it is easy to see why Jobs nearly drove those around him crazy. It was normal for him to walk around and look at the work of designers and engineers and immediately pronounce their work to be crap! And, a week later he would be gushing about the very same thing he labeled “crap” a week earlier. It was also normal that the work on the new product would be almost finalized, or finalized in the mind of others, and he would wake up in the middle of the night and realize why he was not comfortable with its design. The radius of the corners was wrong! Or, the ionized aluminum casing wasn’t exactly right. He would stop everything and have the entire team working on the product go back and fix things based on his simple feel for the design. Inevitably he would be proven right. And in every case it was a matter of the flow, the movement of the eye and mind from one interaction with the product to the next. It was about “lean” although he would not have felt the need to label it as such. It wasn’t the lean of the factory, but the lean of the customer experience.

    I doubt that any CEO in the history of business has been as intimately involved in the design of breakthrough products. His contribution was not that of a traditional executive at all. It was total intimacy with the customer experience that was his contribution.

    Costs vs. Value

    The way lean is implemented in many companies today it is viewed as primarily a cost reduction tool. Eliminating work-in-process, reducing the need for space, and increasing output per employee are all the natural results of lean and all result in positive impact to the bottom line. Rarely was reducing costs the primary motivation behind Steve Jobs’ decisions. The decision to open retail stores provides a telling example.

    Jobs obsessively wanted to control the entire flow of work from the design of chips to software, to the design of the case, the screen and the packing. This was the motivation for his decision to open Apple Stores. He and Ron Johnson spent many months designing the stores, developing prototypes and obsessing on every detail. From a traditional retailing perspective it made no sense. They didn’t have enough different products to fill a store. Most analysts thought it would be impossible to push enough product through the stores to justify the cost of the space. Gateway was failing miserably in their retail stores and Dell was selling direct to customers. But that is not how Jobs was thinking at all. He was thinking about the brand, the customer experience, the joy that the stores would create.

    Larry Ellison, the CEO of Oracle was a close friend and Steve repeatedly invited him over to walk through his prototype store.

    “On each visit Jobs prodded Ellison to figure out ways to streamline the process by eliminating some unnecessary step, such as handing over the credit card or printing a receipt. ‘If you look at the stores and the products, you will see Steve’s obsession with beauty and simplicity – this Bauhous aesthetic and wonderful minimalism, which goes all the way to the checkout process in the stores,’ said Ellison. ‘It means absolute minimum number of steps. Steve gave us the exact explicit recipe for how he wanted the checkout to work.” (page 386)

    That is lean thinking at its best.

    Most experts predicted failure. “Maybe it’s time Steve Jobs stopped thinking quite so differently,” Business week wrote in a story headlines “Sorry Steve, Here’s Why Apple Stores Won’t Work.” The retail consultant David Goldstein declared, “I give them two years before they’re turning out the lights on a very painful and expensive mistake.” Gateway’s stores were averaging 250 visitors per week.

    On May 19, 2001 the first Apple Store opened in Tyson’s Corner Mall, one of the most expensive retail properties in the country. By 2004 Apple stores were averaging 5,400 visitors per week! That year they had $1.2 billion in revenue, setting a record in the retail industry. In July 2011, a decade after the first store was opened, there were 326 Apple stores. The average annual revenue was $34 million, and the net sales in 2010 were $9.8 billion. They were not only profitable, but they boosted the brand and reinforced everything else that Apple did.

    The development of Apple stores and Apple products demonstrated an aspect of lean thinking that is not understood by most lean practitioners. It is not simply about cutting costs. It is about creating value in the customer experience by optimizing flow.

    The Lost Opportunity of Bureaucracy

    Many lean writers and practitioners have not been willing to step up to the plate and address the issues of organizational structure and systems. But, if you don’t you are not likely to be lean. The story of Sony’s lost opportunity and the development of the iPod proves the point.

    Sony had a music division and contracts with a large number of the most popular bands and artists. They were a dominant force in the music business. They had another division that had created the Walkman, a personal device to carry and play music. They had a computer division producing personal computers. They even had software to sell music online. And, at the time, they realized that Napster and other free music download websites were destroying the profitability of their business. It was out of control. Within the Sony brand they had every piece required to solve the problem. However, the three big and powerful divisions fought among themselves and could not collaborate to develop a solution.

    At Apple Computer there was a leader who understood disruptive technology. It wouldn’t be unfair to call Steve Jobs the Crown Prince of disruptive technologies. At that time Apple was merely a personal computer company. They produced no personal or portable devices. But, Jobs loved music. He understood that the personal computer could be the music hub. He personally led the charge to develop the iPod and there were no warring divisions within Apple. Jobs personally met with music royalty including Bob Dylan, Bono, the head of Universal, Sony and other music studios. He went to Japan and found the disc drive at Toshiba that could hold a thousand tunes. He developed an end-to-end solution that met the needs of the artists, the music studios, his own company, and most important, the customers who loved music! He practically lived with Jony Ive, the chief designer, whose aesthetic sense of elegant simplicity for not only the device, but even the packaging, created a unique brand image and advantage. The combination of iTunes software for your computer, the iTunesstore, and the iPod, met the needs of all key stakeholders. It was a victory of seamless integration. It eliminated waste in every component of the music delivery process. It could only have been achieved by an organization devoid of silos and a leader who understood the advantage of a seamless experience by the end user.

    In every instance of product development and marketing, Steve Jobs understood and demonstrated how eliminating waste from the flow of work and the flow of the customer experience results in the creation of value. Perhaps more than any other executive in our lifetime he understood the interdependence of the human and technical factors in product development and in their use. This is the lean that needs more of our attention.

    This article was from Larry Miller’s website “Management Meditations


  2. Insights from an innovator of customer-focused excellence

    February 24, 2014 by nick.halley
    Originally posted by Christine Schaefer on Blogrige: The official Baldrige blog

    Dr. John Timmerman

    Dr. John Timmerman

    We could all learn a lot from Dr. John Timmerman, senior strategist of customer experience and innovation at Gallup. In his former work as corporate vice president of quality and operations at The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, Timmerman helped build ground-breaking practices that strengthened the customer focus of the luxury-brand service organization, which earned two Baldrige Awards in the 1990s.

    In a recent article in Gallup Business Journal, Timmerman points out that innovation, rather than merely incremental improvement, is a necessity for organizations facing rapid change in their strategic situations today. In a subsequent interview for this blog, Timmerman first distinguished “little i innovation” (of processes and products) from “big I innovation” (of the organization’s business model). “Business-model innovation leverages the entire workforce, with everyone in the organization having a role in innovating and moving the organization forward,” he pointed out. “For that kind of innovation, Baldrige [the Criteria for Performance Excellence] provides the best-known framework to help an organization.”

    Following are more excerpts from the interview.


    How do you see the role of the Baldrige framework (the Criteria for Performance Excellence) in supporting innovation?

    To transform an organizational structure there are two different ways of thinking that are interrelated. We can get everyone to be involved in innovating in all of their areas as an ongoing part of their role and responsibility. We can also innovate the business model. And then those two things can also be part of one and the same—in other words, if you’re incorporating innovation as part of your cultural fabric, you can do that while you’re using business-model innovation at the very highest level.

    If a senior leadership group wants to innovate their business model, Baldrige offers an already well-defined framework. [Baldrige] Award recipients provide the best practices for an organization to consider because they are already vetted through the Baldrige examination process.

    In the Gallup Business Journal interview, you make the case that quality is still relevant, stating, “I believe you can have quality—zero defects—without innovation, but you can’t have innovation without quality processes, the systematic and repeatable methods to foster speed and agility.” How might you recommend making the case to business executives to invest in resources related to improving quality and achieving excellence?   

    When people see the term quality, they think of controlling defects and risk mitigation. That’s one side of the definition, having a repeatable process to identify and eliminate defects like Six Sigma. But quality is also about having repeatable processes to foster transformation, innovation, and rapid improvement cycles in an organization. And I think it’s a problem that executives sometimes don’t see the other half of the coin or definition. So when the term quality comes up, I think they default to defect mitigation, which is a repeatable process, but not the repeatable processes in fostering performance excellence and improvement.

    When I look back at Ritz-Carlton, I see that one of the biggest benefits of going on a [Baldrige] journey is that we identified the gaps through the performance excellence framework and then we went out and studied other organizations and saw what their best practices were, which fed our improvement strategies, not just to close the gaps but to become much more competitive.

    I don’t see as many organizations doing that kind of structured benchmarking today as I have in the past. I think they’re trying to glean stuff as everything in the world is moving so fast. So they bring somebody in, a thought leader that already knows the answer, or get it through some knowledge resource. And that’s good, but it may not give you the deeper insights you need. It’s one thing to read the Toyota production process; it’s something very different to go to Toyota and see how it’s applied, because then you get the cultural context.

    And what the Baldrige process allows you to receive when you listen to the [award] recipients is the cultural context, so that you know how to fit in the best practice within the organization. The brilliance of Baldrige is that it puts organizations on a stage where they share not just best practices but also the organizational profile, the cultural context of how practices fit in—not just the good idea but how the good idea fits in within the organization. As a Gallup scientist, I believe that you need to guard against committing an FAE (fundamental attribution error) in trying to apply a good tool to the wrong context. I encourage organizations to complete the Baldrige profile assessment because it gives them the context to assess the appropriateness of best practices for their business model.

    At the Baldrige Program’s annual Quest for Excellence® conference years ago, you shared leading customer-focused practices at the Ritz-Carlton at the time. Tell us about the evolution in the concept of customer focus during your career.

    Personalization has always been out there, but The Ritz-Carlton was one of the first companies to build a platform to do it across multiple sites. The Ritz-Carlton approach was to first create a customer-centric culture, training employees to study what customers are using to understand their preferences. Second, we wanted to be able to delight customers by surprising them versus being merely being preference order-takers. Each facility has a guest relations manager that provides leadership and training to engage employees in identifying, collecting, and delivering guest preferences.

    What are some new developments in the area of customer focus (category 3 in the Baldrige Criteria) by high-performing organizations today?

    The good news is that we’re continuing to make improvements in big data and analytics. That gives us what I call these mega constructs of customer profiles, or psychographics. So I can tell you what all the Chinese 19-year-old males want when they come into a restaurant or when they go buy a car, because I’ve got all this data pulled together from disparate sources. The problem with that though is that it’s a construct so it’s kind of like in The Matrix. And when you really want to dial into customer personalization, you’ll start to see the cat walk by you two to three times like in The Matrix movie; the construct doesn’t always work [at the individual customer level]. The good thing that’s happening is that we’re starting to get a better big-data analytic understanding of what customers want by cohort, by geography, by buying patterns, and so forth. But that has to be balanced with an understanding of what customers want at an individual level. So the companies that are going to be really successful in the future will understand leading trends, those constructs, but they’re still going to be able to leverage big data—that is, leverage global information resources, R=G—and design it to [the level of] n=1.


    Baldrige provides the holistic framework to assess all the dimensions of an organization required for driving excellence.


  3. What’s boosting government performance in Tennessee

    February 14, 2014 by nick.halley

    Originally Posted by Christine Schaefer on Blogrige: the official Baldrige blog.

    Next week in Tennessee, one city, two government agencies, and 11 units of a third agency will be among the organizations receiving state-level Baldrige awards for the results and improvements they’ve achieved in recent years using the Criteria for Performance Excellence as a management framework. Those awards will be bestowed at the annual award ceremony of the Tennessee Center for Performance Excellence (TNCPE), a member of the Alliance for Performance Excellence network that provides a feeder system for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. (Similar Baldrige-based quality award programs can be found around the country.)

    One of the state agencies that will be honored next Wednesday with a TNCPE award is the Tennessee Department of Human Resources.

    “We are proud to participate in what TNCPE is doing to help organizations across Tennessee move forward in creating a culture of performance excellence,” said Rebecca Hunter, commissioner of the Tennessee Department of Human Resources (DOHR). “While the most important part of this application and award process for us is the outstanding feedback we receive from the examiners, we can also say that since we began to focus on the [Baldrige] Criteria, we have more clarity around our mission, vision, and values. We find that the daily work of our entire team is more focused on our strategic plan and key success factors.”

    “DOHR has fewer than 100 employees whose work serves more than 43,000 state employees and ultimately reaches the more than 6 million residents of Tennessee,” added Hunter. “Everyone benefits from the greater efficiency and effectiveness of our department’s key processes.”

    TNCPE’s president and CEO Katie Rawls noted that in the organization’s first year of submitting an award application, DOHR already has earned a Level 2 award among the four levels in TNCPE’s tiered award program. Next Wednesday TNCPE will also present a Level 3 award to the City of Germantown (for the second year in a row) and a Level 2 award to the state’s Bureau of TennCare. In addition, the Tennessee Housing Development Agency, nine county health departments, and two other departments under the auspices of the state health department each earned Level 1 TNCPE awards in the 2013 program. In 2012, state agencies that received TNCPE awards included the Tennessee Department of Children’s Services (Level 2), the Department of Environment and Conservation (Level 1), and the Department of Health (Level 1). In 2012 TNCPE also recognized two public-sector organizations for achieving the highest, Level 4, of excellence: the (municipally owned) Bristol Tennessee Essential Services and the Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority (a unit of the metropolitan government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee).

    How did these wide-reaching Tennessee government entities become involved with the Baldrige program in their state? According to Rawls, since its creation as a public/private partnership 20 years ago, the TNCPE “has always had a connection to state government, though it has ebbed and flowed.” In recent years, she explains, a major catalyst for state government involvement in the Baldrige program has been John Dreyzehner, Tennessee’s commissioner of health. Dreyzehner has been leading his department in use of the Baldrige Criteria since becoming state commissioner of health in 2011. He also now serves on the board of directors of TNCPE. Rawls credits the participation of two state commissioners on TNCPE’s board with greatly boosting use of the Baldrige framework in the Tennessee government.

    Dreyzehner has been particularly helpful, said Rawls, in explaining how the Baldrige framework can help people in government. She said he coached her in how to frame the Criteria for Performance Excellence in presenting it to government organizations, in particular, by not leaving the impression that use of the Criteria is something beyond other performance improvement tools that adds a lot more work. Instead, Dreyzehner has characterized the Baldrige framework as being “like the plastic thingy that helps you hold together a six-pack of beer” in relation to other improvement tools and plans and priorities for work processes.

    To illustrate this value, Rawls worked with Emily Passino, a Lean expert in the state, to create the crosswalk graphic shown below (and linked here as a PDF file: TNCPE Lean Crosswalk) that depicts the Baldrige Criteria framework in the context of the state government’s vision and work processes. Completed and presented at a Lean roundtable in October 2013, this tool was designed to help state employees see how the Criteria categories and questions complement Lean improvement methodology and support all areas of their work.

    Created by Emily Passino and Katie Rawls. Used with permission.

    Created by Emily Passino and Katie Rawls. Used with permission.

    Interviewed separately, Dreyzehner credited TNCPE for being “a model, high-performing state Baldrige organization.” He said Rawls was helpful from the start when he contacted her years ago to learn more about the TNCPE program and resources to promote improvements and excellence in Tennessee’s local health departments’ performance.

    Dreyzehner had first learned about the Baldrige Criteria as a young Air Force captain and flight surgeon in the early 1990s. “The Air Force was very interested in performance excellence,” he recalled, “and was looking at and beginning to use the Baldrige Criteria as a framework.”

    Later, as a district health director in Virginia working with counties in Tennessee, Dreyzehner became intrigued by the use of the Baldrige framework in Tennessee’s Sullivan County, which had been initiated by the county’s public health director, Gary Mayes.

    Today, Dreyzehner takes pride that 11 subunits of his state health department will receive Level 1 TNCPE recognition at the ceremony next week. He says that his organization will apply at the next level in 2014. At the same time, he stresses, “We’re about the journey, not the award.”

    “What this is about is empowering employees in public service. We’re trying to foster this framework throughout the organization in order to get everybody engaged,” he said. “We’re looking to encourage a posture in everybody . . . so that they’re in a position to make the customer’s experience transformative rather than just transactional.”

    “We want customers to feel that they’re getting really good value,” he added. “A lot of times people are coming to us not because they want to, but because they have to. It is a privilege to be in public service. We really want to delight the people we serve if we can.”

    Dreyzehner’s agency provides direct services to 1 in 5 Tennesseans, while also touching on the lives of all residents through its regulatory role. “This is one of the reasons having [the Baldrige] framework is so important: so everybody [providing government services] can have a common approach,” he said.

    To that end, more than a dozen employees in his agency have been trained as TNCPE examiners and are helping to lead their units in the health department, according to Dreyzehner. In addition, he said, more than 500 employees have been trained in the Baldrige Criteria over the last few years.

    Among other Tennessee organizations helped by their involvement with TNCPE is TRICOR, a quasi-governmental organization (self-funded with a board of directors appointed by the governor) that provides job training for individuals incarcerated in the state. TRICOR sent its first employee to become trained as a TNCPE examiner in 2008; by 2011 it had earned a Level 2 TNCPE award. When preparing an organizational profile for its first (Level 1) TNCPE award application, TRICOR leaders and employees had an epiphany. According to TRICOR CEO Patricia Weiland, as they were discussing the elements of their organizational profile, they realized the mission needed to be restated to make clear TRICOR’s core purpose of preparing people for employment. “We got involved with Baldrige and TNCPE for our sustainability,” said Weiland. “Until we got involved with Baldrige process, we’d always recognized as our key customers those individuals who purchased our products and services. Once we were going through the TNCPE application as well as our strategic planning process we realized that we had missed a key customer—the offenders who were working in our training programs. We had to change our mission and vision statement, and one of our performance indicators became reducing recidivism.”

    She added, “It was amazing. It has changed the culture and direction of our organization. It has brought clarity to where we need to spend our time and our resources. Being involved in the Baldrige process has placed us as a national leader in the field of reentry.”

    As Dreyzehner suggested, with the number of organizations in his state using and benefitting from Baldrige resources, the momentum of performance improvement and excellence has been building across the public and private sectors alike: “It’s an exciting time in Tennessee state government. The state government started the TNCPE, and it’s really benefitted our private sector. And I see more and more people are seeing the value of it. Our governor, Bill Haslam, is really interested in management and alignment and seeing that we’re delivering the best service for the lowest cost.”

    “More and more of the [state government] departments are using the TNCPE and the Baldrige framework to help us do that,” he added. “It’s one of the things that gives our state a competitive advantage.”


  4. 5 ways to bring creativity back to your culture

    February 10, 2014 by nick.halley

    Original article by  and posted on INC.com

    All too often, entrepreneurs build companies that stifle the very creativity they need. Here’s how to get back that spark:


    Starting a business is the ultimate form of creativity. In exploring a new opportunity, you get to build every aspect of your business from scratch, from the product to the culture to the customer experience.

    I like to think of this process as solving a big Rubik’s cube: Your team is constantly re-working the same puzzle, trying to figure out how to align the color squares on each side. It’s about solving short-term problems while not losing sight of your longterm vision. The challenge of solving a constantly evolving problem is why most entrepreneur start companies.

    The trouble is, all too often, entrepreneurs end up building organizations that handicap the very creativity they need to be successful. It wasn’t until I stepped away from Contour Camera that I realized I was doing the same thing. I let my workaholic tendencies get in the way and built a culture that was constantly short on creative energy.

    Here are five changes you can make today to bring creativity back to your culture.

    Offer Unlimited Vacation

    Most managers think vacation policies sound great, on paper. It lets them keep track of how hard people are working and justify why a seat is empty.

    To employees, however, vacation policies do just the opposite. They seem to say you don’t don’t trust them to strike a balance, and like a blaring siren, it serves as a reminder of how little they get to travel. On top of that, most companies cap the number of vacation hours employees can accrue, which doesn’t work to their actual benefit.

    Offering unlimited vacation won’t make people skip work every Friday or leave people hanging at deadlines. Instead, it will give them control to choose when they decide to work and when they don’t. Although this may seem trivial, being able to choose means everything in a creative culture.

    Let Employees Work Remotely

    Let’s face it: Your office is not where everyone does their best work, not even you. And while offices are great for building comaradery, they can also be rather distracting.

    Working remotely doesn’t always have to mean being in different cities. As Inc. contributor Jason Fried points out, “Remote just means you’re not in the office from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. all day long.” His company, 37 Signals, has built an entire culture around people who work from anywhere. His latest book, Remote, will inspire you to think differently about how your own team does its best work.

    Ditch the Meetings

    The worst part about meetings is that they’re incredibly easy to add. Even if you make an agenda, the number will only go up as you grow in size. As a result, little creative thinking will get done during the day.

    You’ll start to notice people takings their evenings and weekends to do their best work, when they know they can dive in without distractions. The 30 or 60 minutes in between meetings won’t allow them to really get things done, so they’ll end up wasting time playing email ping-pong.

    Try to cut meetings down to one daily standup. Even if the entire organization has to dial in, it shouldn’t last more than 20 minutes, if it’s done right. This will keep everyone on track and then free them up to use their day as they want.

    Nix Department Goals

    Department goals often help managers more than employees. Generally, you’ll end up wasting valuable hours setting new goals and then even more time asking why you didn’t hit them.

    Worse still, each department relies on resources they don’t control and departments they’re not a part of to reach their goals. This can result in teams signing up for work they were unaware of, which can lead to arguments about whose goals are more important.

    Instead, try focusing the entire company around two or three mega goals and enable them to figure out how they accomplish them. This helps everyone be creative while making it clear what they’re in for.

    Give Plenty of Feedback

    At the end of the day, most people want to do amazing work. They want to surpass expectations, especially their own. Yet a lot of companies make feedback a formal process, waiting until the end of the month, quarter, or year to share how they actually feel.

    Creative cultures thrive on timely, spontaneous feedback. Whether it’s good or bad, feedback helps teams raise their own expectations. It’s the fuel you need to ignite a creative culture. And who doesn’t want one of those?


  5. Benchmark Memo: Feb 2014

    February 9, 2014 by ahmed

    Greetings to our members,

    Click here to read the Benchmark Memo

    This month’s content includes:

    1. Learning from Lee Kuan Yew
    2. Best Practice Report – Collaborative Tools
    3. Social Networking at Cisco Systems, USA
    4. BPIR Tip of the Month – BPIR improvement Cycle

    Best Regards,

    neil-sig

    Neil Crawford
    BPIR.com